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HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I


LECTURE OUTLINE NINE

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EUROPEAN OVERSEAS EXPANSION
sudden overseas expansion
Renaissance explanation
medieval explanation
  • economics
  • religion
  • technology
  • the concept that the earth is round
Why wasn't America discovered earlier?
Portugese voyages and discoveries
  • the role of Prince Henry "the Navigator"
  • Bartholomew Dias (1487)
  • Vaco da Gama (1497)
Spanish voyages and discoveries
  • Spain's need to compete with Portugal
  • Columbus's journeys and his errors
  • fallacy of the term "Columbus discovered America"
  • Spanish "disappointment" with the New World
  • Balboa's discovery of the Pacific Ocean in 1513
  • Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe (1519-1522) and the search for a southwest passage
Spanish conquistadores in the New World
  • Hernando Cortes in Mexico
  • Francisco Pizarro in Peru
Spain's economic rewards in the New World
overall consequences of European expansion overseas


MARTIN LUTHER AND THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION IN GERMANY
Why did Luther break with Rome?
Why did so many Germans support Luther?
Why did German princes rally behind Luther?
Luther's disgust with religious abuses--dispensations, relics, and indulgences
Luther's opposition to medieval Christian theology
Luther's preference for the Augustinian system of theology
Luther's opposition to Thomistic theology and its emphases upon free will and the sacraments
Luther's early life and his "tower experience"
Luther's essential doctrines and teachings
  • justification by faith
  • primacy of Scripture
  • "priesthood of all believers"
Luther and his 95 Theses (1517)
practical implications of Luther's teachings


WHY DID SO MANY GERMANS FIND COMFORT IN LUTHERANISM?
readiness for rebellion grounded in disgust with the Papacy
anger with the composition of the College of Cardinals
impact of Christian humanism
role of the universities


Luther's pamphlets
Luther's trial and the 1521 Diet of Worms
Emperor Charles V and his opposition to Luther
Luther's protection by Frederick the Wise


WHY WERE GERMAN PRINCES WILLING TO ADOPT LUTHERANISM?
economic motives evidenced by the 1500 Diet of Augsburg
political motives--princes had not gained concessions in the concordats
princes sought to obtain overall governmental sovereignty


Luther's encouragement of the princes
princes seized an opportunity to support Luther and gain sovereignty


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