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HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I


LECTURE OUTLINE EIGHT

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LATER MIDDLE AGES AND THE FORMATION OF RUSSIA
early Westernization under the Kievan state
reasons for the halt of Russia's Westernization
  • Mongol conquests
  • emergence of Moscow
  • resentment of Catholic Poland
  • fall of Constantinople
impact of Ivan the Great (1462-1505)
Russia's isolation and its development of an Eastern-style autocracy


CRISIS OF DOUBT IN THEOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY
William of Ockham and nominalism
William of Ockham and the encouragement of empiricism


LATER MIDDLE AGES' ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY
new weapons
advances in navigation
mechanical clocks and the mechanization of life
invention of the printing press


THE RENAISSANCE (C.1350-1550)
definition of the term "Renaissance"
limitations of the term
Various characteristics of the Renaissance
  • continuing rediscovery of classical learning
  • new uses for classical learning
  • secular culture
  • humanism
Why did the Renaissance originate in Italy?
Civic Humanism in Italy
Niccolo Machiavelli and The Prince
Baldesar Castiglione and the ideals of the Renaissance man


OVERVIEW OF THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALIAN ART
Florentines and Venetians
Late Renaissance--Raphael and Michelangelo


DECLINE OF THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
French Invasion of 1494
  • Charles VIII of France
  • Louis XII of France
  • Emperor Charles V
Loss of economic prosperity in Italy
Impact of the Counter-Reformation


SPREAD OF THE RENAISSANCE INTO NORTHERN EUROPE
reasons for the spread of the Renaissance
difference between the Italian and Northern European Renaissance
Christian Humanism in the Northern European Renaissance
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Thomas More and Utopia
  • Ulrich von Hutten

SCIENTIFIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE RENAISSANCE
not linked to humanism
roots of the Renaissance's scientific accomplishments
  • Neoplationism
  • mechanistic view of the universe
  • integration of theory and practice
Copernician Revolution
  • Nicholas Copernicus and the heliocentric theory of the universe
  • Johann Kepler's Two Laws
  • Galileo and the Copernician Revolution
Renaissance achievements in medicine and anatomy
  • Paracelsus
  • Michael Servetus
  • Andreas Vesalius


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