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HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I


LECTURE OUTLINE SEVEN

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POSTITIVE RESULTS OF THE PAPAL MONARCHY


THE CRUSADES
Urban II's motives for calling the Crusades
economic and political causes of the Crusades
First Crusade and subsequent Crusades' failuresw
the Crusades' impact upon the rise and decline of the papal monarchy
positive and negative effects of the Crusades


RELIGIOUS REVITALIZATION
Gregory VII's influence upon relligiou vitality
the Cistercian Movement
emergence of new devotions to the Eucharist and the Virgin Mary
rise of heresy
  • Albigensianism
  • Waldensianism
Innocent III's responses to the heresies
  • crush disobedience
  • accept new religious orders to couterbalance the heretics
Fourth Lateran Council (1215) and its teachings
organization of the friars (Dominicans and Franciscans)


INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL IN THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES
spread of primary education and literacy
  • development of cathedral schools
  • broadening of the curriculum in cathedral schools
  • growth of lay schools
emergence of universities (two models)
acquisition of Greek and Arabic knowledge
Scholasticism and its two meanings
Peter Abelard
St. Thomas Aquinas
misconceptions about Scholastic thinkers


LATER MIDDLE AGES (C.1300-1500) AND A SERIES OF CRISES
Economic Crises and a New Equilibrium (Causes and Characteristics)
Overview of the Black Death
Economic Consequences of the Black Death
  • agricultural specialization
  • growth in importance of urban centers
  • development of business techniques
Development of a New Economic Equilibrium
Social Crises (Three Lower-Class Uprisings)
  • the "Jacquerie" uprising (1358)
  • English Peasants' Revolt (1381)
  • Ciompi Uprising (1378)
  • overview of these uprisings
Crisis of the Late-Medieval Aristocracy
Institutional Crisis of the Papacy
  • features of the Avignon Papacy (1305-1378)
  • advantages of the Avignon Papacy
  • the Great Schism (1378-1417)
  • conciliarism (definition)
  • the papacy's opposition to conciliarism with concordats
Anticlericalism and the decline of priests' prestige
  • new devotional practices
  • mysticism--Master Eckhart and Thomas Kempis
  • new heresies--John Wyclif and the Lollards; John Hus

LATER MIDDLE AGES AND NATIONAL MONARCHIES' CRISES
Italy and its Balance of Power
Germany and its Instability (princes vs. emperors)
France vs. England--Hundred Years' War
  • causes of the War
  • early English success
  • French success thereafter
  • impact (results) of the War
  • impact upon the national monarchies of France and England


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