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HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION I


LECTURE OUTLINE ONE

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PREHISTORY
Emergence of villages
Villages and trade
Onset of warfare between villages
Emergence of cities (c. 3500-3200 B.C.)
Differences between villages and cities--the role of "rulers" and the "ruled"
Cities in Mesopotamia


MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATIONS
Sumerian Era (c. 3200-2000 B.C.)
  • overview of Sumerian political history
  • Mesopotamia's relationship with nature and the surrounding environment
  • Mesopotamia as a "hydraulic society"
  • Sumer's three precious gifts
  • Sumerian religion (3 steps in its evolution)
  • ziggurats and the reflection of social stratification in Sumer
  • Sumerian economic decline
Old Babylonian Era (c. 2000-1600 B.C.)
  • Amorites' difference with Sumerians
  • The Code of Hammurabi
  • Old Babylonia and the development of personal religion
  • Old Babylonia and mathematics
Kassite and Hittite Era (c. 1600-1300 B.C.)
  • decline of Old Babylonia
  • misconceptions about the Hittites
  • Hittites' derivative culture
Assyrian Era (c. 1300-612 B.C.)
  • development of the Assyrian Empire
  • Assyrians' intellectual dependency upon Sumer and Old Babylonia
  • Assyrians' frightfulness
  • 612 BC--Assyria falls to a union of Babylonians and Medians
New Babylonian Era (612-539 B.C.)
  • Medes in Anatolia and Chaldeans in Mesopotamia
  • role of astronomy and astrology in New Babylonia

OVERVIEW OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS AND LEGACY OF MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATION


EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
Archaic Period (c. 3100-2770 B.C.)
  • unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Narmer
Old Kingdom (c. 2770-2200 B.C.)
  • pharaohs' absolute power
  • nonmilitaristic nature
  • problems in the Old Kingdom
1st Intermediate Period (c. 2200-2050 B.C.)
  • nobles rule in place of central authority
Middle Kingdom (c. 2050-1786 B.C.)
Golden Age and the invasion of the Hyksos
2nd Intermediate Period (c. 1786-1560 B.C.)
New Kingdom (c. 1560-1087 B.C.)
Egyptian Empire and the reason for aggressiveness
the decline of Egypt


EGYPTIAN RELIGION
solar faith--Re (Amon)
cult of Osiris
thoughts of the hereafter and the development of an ethical religion
synthesis of the solar faith and the cult of Osiris
debasement of religion during the Empire
reforms of Akhenaton and the characteristics of "qualified monotheism"
Akhenaton's failure and the restoration of polytheism


EGYPTIAN INTELLECTUAL ACHIEVEMENTS AND SCIENCE


EGYPTIAN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE
class system
role of women
economics


OVERVIEW OF EGYPTIAN LEGACY AND ACHIEVEMENTS


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